Europe’s capital cities have undergone significant changes over time, both in terms of their physical infrastructure and their cultural and political identities. Some perhaps carry more historical weight than others.
London has a rich history that dates back thousands of years, and over time it has served as the capital of various empires and nations. One of the most significant changes in London’s history came during the Industrial Revolution, when the city underwent massive expansion and modernisation, leading to the growth of its population and economy. Today, London is one of the most diverse and cosmopolitan cities in the world, reflecting its long history of cultural and political diversity.
Paris, for example, has a long and storied history, and over the centuries it has evolved from a small Roman outpost into one of the most iconic cities in the world. One of the most notable changes in Paris has been the transformation of its urban landscape, particularly during the 19th century under the guidance of Baron Haussmann. Haussmann oversaw the construction of many of Paris’s most famous boulevards, parks, and buildings, giving the city its distinctive character.
Berlin has also undergone significant changes over time, particularly during the 20th century. Following the Second World War, the city was divided into East and West Berlin, with the construction of the Berlin Wall separating the two halves. The fall of the Wall in 1989 marked a major turning point in the city’s history, leading to its reunification and the rapid transformation of its physical and cultural landscape.
Athens is one of the oldest cities in Europe, with a history that dates back more than 3,400 years. Over the centuries, the city has served as a center of learning, art and philosophy, and its contributions to Western civilization are incalculable. In more recent times, Athens has undergone significant changes, particularly in the wake of Greece’s economic crisis. Despite these challenges, the city remains a vibrant and culturally rich destination for visitors from around the world.
Complete list of Europe’s capital cities and populations
But enough with the history, here is a complete list of Europe’s capital cities (and their populations as best could be found with current figures) in a handy A to Zagreb format.
- Amsterdam, Netherlands – 873,555
- Andorra la Vella, Andorra – 22,886
- Athens, Greece – 3,761,810
- Belgrade, Serbia – 1,186,000
- Berlin, Germany – 3,769,495
- Bern, Switzerland – 133,883
- Bratislava, Slovakia – 432,801
- Brussels, Belgium – 1,218,255
- Bucharest, Romania – 1,832,063
- Budapest, Hungary – 1,752,704
- Chisinau, Moldova – 664,800
- Copenhagen, Denmark – 794,128
- Dublin, Ireland – 1,390,400
- Helsinki, Finland – 656,229
- Kyiv, Ukraine – 2,950,819
- Lisbon, Portugal – 547,733
- Ljubljana, Slovenia – 289,711
- London, UK – 9,304,016
- Luxembourg City, Luxembourg – 124,509
- Madrid, Spain – 6,693,472
- Minsk, Belarus – 2,002,600
- Monaco, Monaco – 38,695
- Moscow, Russia – 12,678,079
- Nicosia, Cyprus – 310,000
- Oslo, Norway – 697,549
- Paris, France – 2,187,526
- Podgorica, Montenegro – 204,877
- Prague, Czech Republic – 1,324,277
- Reykjavik, Iceland – 133,270
- Riga, Latvia – 630,692
- Rome, Italy – 2,840,838
- San Marino, San Marino – 4,044
- Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina – 275,524
- Skopje, North Macedonia – 552,458
- Sofia, Bulgaria – 1,326,782
- Stockholm, Sweden – 975,551
- Tallinn, Estonia – 434,562
- Tirana, Albania – 899,763
- Vaduz, Liechtenstein – 5,517
- Valletta, Malta – 5,965
- Vienna, Austria – 1,931,501
- Vilnius, Lithuania – 541,308
- Warsaw, Poland – 1,790,658
- Zagreb, Croatia – 790,017
Europe’s capital cities have undergone significant changes over time, reflecting the complex interplay of history, culture, politics, and economics. These changes have helped to shape the identity and character of these cities, making them some of the most dynamic and fascinating destinations in the world.
[Read more: Where are the largest cities in Europe?]